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Motivation Quick Tip Student Perspective

Student Perspective: School is Starting, Please Send Help!

This student-authored post is part of a series that highlights student perspectives around learning and executive function in the classroom.

Many students, myself included, are facing increased stress as the school year begins. Even before school starts, students are already stressed with summer work.

More Work, Less Choice

Every year it seems that the work assigned in the summer has grown in quantity. When I was younger, we were told the goal of summer work was just to encourage us to read. But in high school, there is more work and fewer choices.

Stressful Timing

Summer school work poses an issue as I try to balance my summer activities with this work. The school intends for summer work to be done slowly throughout the whole summer. However, being tested on most of this work makes it even worse, because I have to do it in the last two or three weeks of summer, so I don’t forget the content. This leaves me stressed about the tests I will have on the first or second day of classes.

0 to 100!

It’s standard for the first couple weeks of school to be stressful; getting used to a school schedule again and seeing people I haven’t seen for three months are just a few of the stressors. Coming back to school feels like being dropped into a new environment. I like to think of it like a fish being dropped in cold water. Usually, you raise and lower the temperature of fish tanks slowly, so the fish isn’t shocked by the temperature change. But going back to school is an abrupt change, and it is overwhelming.

I’ve only explained a few reasons why going back to school can be so stressful for students. It is important that teachers, parents, and anyone supporting a high schooler be aware of students’ emotions and heightened anxiety during this time.

  • C. Solomon, Student Contributor

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

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Metacognition Quick Tip Teaching EF Tips

Teaching Metacognitive Talk in the Classroom

Students are often told, “Complete the assignment independently and quietly,” or “Be quiet. Your peers are trying to focus.”

Encouraging students to think in their heads and work quietly can suggest an air of academic and behavioral success. It also raises a question: Does this silent way of thinking benefit student learning?

Thinking Out Loud

Metacognitive talk is a concept that encourages students to think aloud as they work through their ideas. When students work through the steps of a task out loud, they gain a deeper understanding of their thinking processes.

For students to learn this method of deeper thinking, it is essential to see people modeling the behavior. In the classroom, teachers can show metacognitive talk in action by verbally breaking down a problem into smaller steps.

Asking questions is a vital aspect of metacognitive talk. When teachers model and then explicitly teach how to ask questions and what questions to ask, students can build a “question toolkit” to aid their metacognitive understanding.

Questions to Promote Metacognition

Some questions that could be used are:

  • What previous knowledge do I have on this topic?
  • What am I trying to find out?
  • What do I need to do first?
  • Who could I ask for help?
  • What strategies can I use? (Think about the EF toolkit)
  • What can I do differently next time?

While a classroom full of students talking and exploring their ideas could be perceived as raucous to an outsider, I challenge you to rethink this perception and look closer at the possibilities of creative collaboration and metacognitive talk.

  • Julia Ronkin, SMARTS Student Intern

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

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Executive Function Quick Tip Recommendations

Quick Tip: End-of-Year EF Lessons

When is the best time to introduce or reinforce an executive function strategy? Any time — even at the end of the school year. Our SMARTS Curriculum Extensions require little preparation and are flexible enough to fit into what you’re already teaching. 

What Are Extensions?

SMARTS Curriculum extensions (found at the end of each SMARTS lesson plan) are easy and efficient ways to teach executive function strategies. SMARTS extensions allow you to weave bits of executive function instruction into existing content. Small but mighty, SMARTS extensions:

  • Stand on their own as quick mini-lessons or serve as a way to review and reinforce a strategy taught in the full lesson
  • Require little to no preparation
  • Offer various options to embed executive function strategies in natural moments within instruction and to extend the learning from a single lesson over time

SMARTS Secondary Extensions

SMARTS Secondary offers over 400 extensions, which are organized into six categories:

  1. Creating strategic learning communities
  2. Reflection/self-advocacy
  3. Test strategies
  4. Projects
  5. Math/science
  6. ELA/social science

These categories offer a way to easily align strategy instruction with your unique teaching setting and learning goals.

SMARTS Elementary Extensions

SMARTS Elementary features extensions for every lesson. You can also use our new lesson sorter to curate lessons by areas such as active reading, flexible thinking and problem solving, self-understanding, perspective-taking, and more.

Got Time? Run a Full Lesson

If your end-of-year schedule allows for full lessons, there are a number of strategies that students can use to set themselves up for summer success. Goal setting is an appropriate strategy to help students think about how they can make the most of their summer break. Purposeful highlighting is useful for test taking and summer reading. 

  • Caitlin Vanderberg, M.Ed., SMARTS Associate

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

Categories
Metacognition Quick Tip Reading Comprehension

Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

Teaching students to become active readers and monitor their comprehension is an important part of becoming a successful reader.

For many readers, the process of decoding is taxing and can interfere with comprehension. When students think about their thinking and pay attention to the story that is developing in their head as they read, they can more actively check their comprehension and seek help resolving any inconsistencies.

Teaching students to think about their thinking can take many forms.

  • Thinking routines (from Project Zero) can help make students’ thinking visible while they read. A thinking routine is a set of questions or a brief sequence of steps used to scaffold student thinking. These routines help make students’ learning processes visible, offering a way for them to make sense of what they read.
  • When students aren’t sure if they understand what they’ve read, you can offer them strategies such as rereading or leaving a sticky note in places where they have questions.
  • Use “turn-and-talk partners” to encourage peer collaboration and let students articulate and discuss their understanding of a text.

For more metacognitive strategies that can boost reading comprehension, check out these suggestions from the Landmark School Outreach Professional Development for Educators.

  • Caitlin Vanderberg, M.Ed., SMARTS Associate

Build Your Executive Function Toolkit in 2022

Are you interested in building your Executive Function Toolkit? Join us in February and March to hear from EF experts on topics such as metacognition and motivation, strategies to support students with long-term projects and project-based learning, embedding EF in the general education curriculum, and the intersection of EF and social-emotional learning. Learn more and register today

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

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Executive Function Motivation Quick Tip

Motivation Monday: Behaviorism

Behaviorism is a theory of learning that focuses on students’ interactions with their environment; learning occurs when there is a response to the right stimulus. Students’ behaviors change because of interactions with stimuli in their environment.

Behaviorism is not concerned with internal changes; instead, it focuses on observable changes in students’ actions. For example, rewarding students for meeting the class goal of handing in their assignments on time is an example of positive reinforcement — adding in a desired stimulus. Removing weekend homework as a result of improved class behavior is an example of negative reinforcement — removing an undesired stimulus.

Why it matters for education

Learning does not happen in a vacuum — we have to consider the context and environment, especially for executive function strategy instruction. Are the EF demands appropriate for students? Do they have the strategies they need to meet expectations? By creating a classroom environment that fosters executive function strategy use and positive student behaviors, we can bring about change in students’ actions.

Behaviorism also underlies patterns of positive reinforcement. For example, if a student has difficulty completing tasks independently, subtle praise when the student meets their goal can encourage this behavior. Scheduling fun (yet educational) activities can also help students associate school with positive feelings.

Takeaways

  • Consider external rewards (e.g., praise, free choice activities, rewards) when tasks are new or difficult.
  • Extrinsic reinforcement can also be helpful when students are completing non-fulfilling activities (e.g., drill-and-practice tasks to gain mastery in foundational skills such as math facts).
  • As students gain mastery, switch the focus from external rewards to intrinsic rewards (e.g., deemphasize grades by acknowledging progress made in the learning process, encourage pride in one’s work).   
  • Be clear about which behaviors lead to which consequences, both positive and negative.

We are launching a “Motivation Monday” series here on the SMARTS blog to explore various theories of learning and motivation. Look for the second post which will cover goal orientation theory and growth mindset.

  • Caitlin Vanderberg, M.Ed., SMARTS Associate

Build Your Executive Function Toolkit in 2022

Are you interested in building your Executive Function Toolkit? Join us in February and March to hear from EF experts on topics such as metacognition and motivation, strategies to support students with long-term projects and project-based learning, embedding EF in the general education curriculum, and the intersection of EF and social-emotional learning. Learn more and register today

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

Categories
Executive Function Organization Quick Tip

Quick Tip: The Power of Common Language

What’s in a name? When it comes to addressing students’ executive function challenges and helping them understand their learning profiles, a structured, systematic, and explicit approach is key. By clearly naming executive function strategies, students can develop an understanding of what strategies are, why they matter, and how they can be applied. 

For Students

When we name and model a strategy, students can begin to think about the strategy’s value and applications in their lives. Take, for example, an organizational strategy like the SMARTS 4C’s strategy (Unit 4 in SMARTS). This strategy helps students organize their materials using the 4C’s (C, C, C, and C). Developing clear and consistent language in the classroom around organization can increase strategy use and ensure that students can refer to the strategy by name later on.

Strategy instruction promotes self-understanding as students are required to think about what strategies they can use, why they will help, and when they can use them. Using strategies is an intentional and deliberate process; students become active learners who engage in self-reflection about which strategies were most successful in specific situations. When armed with strategies that they can name and understand, students have options for how they can respond to challenges.

For Educators and Administrators

Naming executive function strategies is also beneficial for educators and administrators. If everyone in a school or learning center is using the same executive function strategies and terms, this shared common language could ultimately lead to a culture shift. Repeated exposure to the same strategies can also help students see that all their teachers are on the same page and that strategies can be applied across classes

  • Caitlin Vanderberg, M.Ed., SMARTS Associate

Build Your Executive Function Toolkit in 2022

Are you interested in building your Executive Function Toolkit? Join us in February and March to hear from EF experts on topics such as metacognition and motivation, strategies to support students with long-term projects and project-based learning, embedding EF in the general education curriculum, and the intersection of EF and social-emotional learning. Learn more and register today

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org

Categories
Executive Function Quick Tip

Quick Tip: SMARTS Curriculum Extensions

Struggling to make time to teach executive function? SMARTS Curriculum extensions are an easy way to embed executive function strategies in natural moments within instruction. 

Extensions require little to no preparation, and they can either stand on their own as a quick mini-lesson or serve as a way to review and reinforce a strategy taught in the full lesson.

You’ll find extensions located at the end of each SMARTS lesson plan.

  • SMARTS Secondary has over 400 extensions, which are organized into six categories: creating strategic learning communities, reflection/self-advocacy, test strategies, projects, math/science, and ELA/social science. These categories offer a way to easily align strategy instruction with your teaching setting and learning goals.
  • SMARTS Elementary, updated in August 2021, features extensions for every lesson. Teachers can also use the new lesson sorter for SMARTS Elementary to curate lessons by areas such as active reading, flexible thinking and problem solving, self-understanding, perspective-taking, and more.

With SMARTS Curriculum extensions, you can address executive function explicitly in small pockets of time during the school day to establish meaningful routines that set students up for success.

Join us this November for the 36th Annual Executive Function Conference, which will focus on promoting resilience and equity for ALL students.

  • Caitlin Vanderberg, M.Ed., SMARTS Associate

SMARTS Executive Function Curriculum: smarts-ef.org

Research Institute for Learning and Development: researchild.org

The Institute for Learning and Development: ildlex.org